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Dutch Verbs

Smartphone Verbs Home
  1. The Verb Stem
  2. The Present Tense
  3. The Past Tense
  4. Recapitulation
  5. To Have and To Be
  6. The Perfect Tense
  1. The Future Tense
  2. The Passive
  3. The Imperative
  4. Verbs as Nouns and Adjectives
  5. The Continuous
  6. Irregular and Confusing
    Links to other useful pages:
    The Dutch verb is in many ways similar to the English verb, though a slightly larger number of endings makes it a little more complicated. Dutch spelling, on the other hand, is much more straightforward than English.
    Find a newer version of the introduction to Dutch verbs in Lesson 9.
    In the Lessons you can find newer versions of some of the material of this Verbs page: 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8
    kennento know

    wetento know

    gaanto go
    ik ken
    jij kent
    hij kent
    wij kennen
    jullie kennen
    zij kennen
    U kent
    click to hear
    (I know)
    (you know)
    (he knows)
    (we know)
    (you know)
    (they know)
    (you know)

    ik weet
    jij weet
    hij weet
    wij weten
    jullie weten
    zij weten
    U weet
    click to hear
    (I know)
    (you know)
    (he knows)
    (we know)
    (you know)
    (they know)
    (you know)

    ik ga
    jij gaat
    hij gaat
    wij gaan
    jullie gaan
    zij gaan
    U gaat
    click to hear 2
    (I go)
    (you go)
    (he goes)
    (we go)
    (you go)
    (they go)
    (you go)

    (you - singular)

    (you - plural)

    (you - polite)
    In each of the verbs above, the vowel length doesn't change.
    A double vowel is always long, but a single vowel can be either long or short.
    The spelling rules to remember: Also note that the final 'e' in the '-en' endings is voiceless: 'uh.'

    The beautiful dance of single and double vowels and consonants is an important feature of Dutch spelling. It is explained at length in many of my pages, like Vowels and Diphthongs Compared, the Adjectives section of Lesson 11, and the Plurals page.

    The Verb Stem

    Basic Rule: Remove the -en that's usually found at the end of the infinitive of Dutch verbs to get the verb stem.

    Exceptions Regular:
    If removing the -en would result in a stem ending in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel, then that single vowel will be doubled.
    When removing the -en would result in a stem ending in a double consonant, then one of the consonants is dropped. (See Spelling Rules)


    following the basic rule
    following the basic rule
    the vowel is long
    the infinitive's double 'p' indicates that the 'a' is short

    Exceptions Regular:
    In Dutch, 'v' and 'z' only occur before a vowel: in alll other positions they with change to 'f' or 's,' respectively



    Exceptions Irregular:
    doen, zien - stem: doe, zie
    gaan, staan - stem: ga, sta
    zijn, hebben(to be, to have) - very irregular verbs, see below
    zullen (future tense auxiliary verb) - irregular, see below
    mogen, kunnen (to be allowed to, to be able to) - very irregular verbs, see below

    Present Tense

    Simple Present Model
    ik STEM
    jij STEM+t
    hij STEM+t
    wij INFINITIVE (STEM+en)
    jullie INFINITIVE (STEM+en)
    zij INFINITIVE (STEM+en)
    U STEM+t
    (I )
    (you [singular])
    (he )
    (we )
    (you [plural])
    (they )
    (you [polite])

    dankento thank
    stemmen to vote or to tune
    ik dank
    jij dankt
    hij dankt
    wij danken
    jullie danken
    zij danken
    U dankt
    click to hear
    (I thank)
    (you thank)
    (he thanks)
    (we thank)
    (you thank)
    (they thank)
    (you thank)

    ik stem
    jij stemt
    hij stemt
    wij stemmen
    jullie stemmen
    zij stemmen
    U stemt
    click to hear
    (I vote)
    (you vote)
    (he votes)
    (we vote)
    (you vote)
    (they vote)
    (you vote)

    Third person singular alternates zij click to hear / ze click to hear ('she') and het click to hear / 't click to hear ('it') will take the same endings as hij ('he.')
    hij - zij - het - 't click to hear
    See also: Personal Pronouns

    In question mode and in some sentence structures the verb will precede the personal pronoun; in those cases, for second person singular (je, jij) the 't' will be dropped. (Only in the present tense.)
    dank jij? - stem jij? click to hear

    If there's a consonant at the end of the stem, a preceding single vowel is short: then that consonant at the end is usually doubled for the -en in the plural.

    A few verbs are irregular, like zijn en hebben >>
    A few common Dutch verbs have a short vowel in the singular and a long vowel in the plural, either in the present or in the past tense, or in both. For instance: komen >>

    Dutch verbs with a stem ending in T do not add an extra T for the second and third person singular:
    zitten: ik zit, jij zit, hij zit >> (to sit)
    weten: ik weet, jij weet, hij weet >> (to know things)
    praten: ik praat, jij praat, hij praat >> (to talk, to chat)
    more examples: eten (to eat) - wachten (to wait) - moeten (to have to, 'must')
    Dutch verbs with a stem ending in D do add a T for the second and third person singular (it's a problem for many Dutchmen too) - but it does not change the pronunciation because D at the end of a word is pronounced as T, and DT is pronounced as T:
    worden: ik word, jij wordt, hij wordt >> (to become/the passive) - hear: ik word - hij wordt click to hear 2
    vinden: ik vind, jij vindt, hij vindt >> (to find)
    bidden: ik bid, jij bidt, hij bidt: >> (to pray)
    more examples: snijden (to cut with a knife) - lijden / leiden (to suffer / to lead) - rijden (to drive; to ride)

    Past Tense

    Find a newer version explaining the past tense in Lesson 12.
    Like in English, many common verbs are strong, which means they have a vowel change for the past tense; like in the present tense, -en is added for the plural (and consonants may be doubled).
    Weak verbs ending in t,k,f,s, ch or p (the mnemonic is: 't kofschip - click to hear) add -te to the stem for the simple past singular, -ten to the stem for the simple past plural.
    Exception: -de(n) will be added to f or s from an infinitive that ended in -ven or -zen.
    suizen/bruisen - suisde/bruiste click to hear
    All other weak verbs add -de for the simple past singular, -den for the simple past plural.
    In the past tense, there's no exception for the 'je/jij' question mode.

    Simple Past Model
    strong verbs weak verbs
    " 't kofschip" type other weak verbs
    jullie STRONG-PAST-STEM+en
    ik STEM+te
    jij STEM+te
    hij STEM+te
    wij STEM+ten
    jullie STEM+ten
    zij STEM+ten
    U STEM+te
    ik STEM+de
    jij STEM+de
    hij STEM+de
    wij STEM+den
    jullie STEM+den
    zij STEM+den
    U STEM+de
    (I )
    (you [singular])
    (he )
    (we )
    (you [plural])
    (they )
    (you [polite])
    Strong Verbs
    vragento ask
    rijdento drive or to ride
    ik vroeg
    jij vroeg
    hij vroeg
    wij vroegen
    jullie vroegen
    zij vroegen
    U vroeg
    click to hear
    (I asked)
    (you asked)
    (he asked)
    (we asked)
    (you asked)
    (they asked)
    (you asked)

    ik reed
    jij reed
    hij reed
    wij reden
    jullie reden
    zij reden
    U reed
    click to hear
    (I drove)
    (you drove)
    (he drove)
    (we drove)
    (you drove)
    (they drove)
    (you drove)
    vroeg jij?(did you ask?) reed jij?(did you drive?) click to hear
    A more or less complete list of strong verbs.
    Weak Verbs
    'kofschip' type 'non-kofschip' type
    danken to thank stemmento vote
    ik dankte
    jij dankte
    hij dankte
    wij dankten
    jullie dankten
    zij dankten
    U dankte
    click to hear
    (I thanked)
    (you thanked)
    (he thanked)
    (we thanked)
    (you thanked)
    (they thanked)
    (you thanked)

    ik stemde
    jij stemde
    hij stemde
    wij stemden
    jullie stemden
    zij stemden
    U stemde
    click to hear
    (I voted)
    (you voted)
    (he voted)
    (we voted)
    (you voted)
    (they voted)
    (you voted)
    dankte jij?(did you thank?) stemde jij?(did you vote?) click to hear

    Two Examples, Various Exceptions (Recapitulation)

    'Geven' (to give) shows the v/f shift, change between double and single vowels, and (in the past tense) different vowel lengths for singular and plural.

    simple present simple past
    gevento give geven
    ik geef
    jij geeft
    hij geeft
    wij geven
    jullie geven
    zij geven
    U geeft
    click to hear
    (I give)
    (you give)
    (he gives)
    (we give)
    (you give)
    (they give)
    (you give)

    ik gaf
    jij gaf
    hij gaf
    wij gaven
    jullie gaven
    zij gaven
    U gaf
    click to hear
    (I gave)
    (you gave)
    (he gave)
    (we gave)
    (you gave)
    (they gave)
    (you gave)
    geef jij?(do you give?) gaf jij?(did you give?) click to hear

    'Komen' (to come) has different vowel lengths for singular and plural in both the present and in the past tense.

    ik kom
    jij komt
    hij komt
    wij komen
    jullie komen
    zij komen
    U komt
    click to hear
    (I come)
    (you come)
    (he comes)
    (we come)
    (you come)
    (they come)
    (you come)

    ik kwam
    jij kwam
    hij kwam
    wij kwamen
    jullie kwamen
    zij kwamen
    U kwam
    click to hear
    (I came)
    (you came)
    (he came)
    (we came)
    (you came)
    (they came)
    (you came)

    Hebben (to have) en Zijn (to be)

    Find a newer version explaining these verbs in Lesson 7, Lesson 8 and Lesson 11.
    present tense
    hebbento have zijnto be
    ik heb
    jij hebt
    hij heeft
    wij hebben
    jullie hebben
    zij hebben
    U heeft
    click to hear
    I have
    you have
    he has
    we have
    you have
    they have
    you have

    ik ben
    jij bent
    hij is
    wij zijn
    jullie zijn
    zij zijn
    U bent
    click to hear
    I am
    you are
    he is
    we are
    you are
    they are
    you are
    'U hebt' is also said.
    past tense
    ik had
    jij had
    hij had
    wij hadden
    jullie hadden
    zij hadden
    U had
    click to hear
    I had
    you had
    he had
    we had
    you had
    they had
    you had

    ik was
    jij was
    hij was
    wij waren
    jullie waren
    zij waren
    U was
    click to hear
    I was
    you were
    he was
    we were
    you were
    they were
    you were

    The Perfect Tense

    Find a newer version explaining the perfect tenses in Lesson 12.
    In English, the perfect tense is formed by using 'to have' with a past participle (I have been.) Dutch uses either hebben ('to have') or zijn ('to be.') There are hardly any useful rules for when to use which, the student of Dutch will have to memorize which verbs take zijn.
    Most verbs of motion take 'zijn' when a destination is mentioned, 'hebben' when it's about the motion itself:
    Ik ben naar Amsterdam gefietst - Ik heb een uur gefietst. I biked to Amsterdam - I biked for an hour.
    Ik heb een uur gefietst click to hear 2 (I rode a bike for an hour)
    Ik ben naar Veenendaal gefietst click to hear 2 (I rode a bike to Veenendaal)
    (Notice also that Dutch and English perfect tense are not used exactly in the same manner.)

    The past participle is usually formed by prefixing the verb stem with ge-, and adding an ending:


    simple past
    perfect tense
    to have
    ik had
    ik heb gehad click to hear
    to be
    ik was/wij waren
    ik ben geweest click to hear
    to know
    ik kende
    ik heb gekend click to hear
    to know
    ik wist
    ik heb geweten click to hear
    to thank
    ik dankte
    ik heb gedankt click to hear
    to vote
    ik stemde
    ik heb gestemd click to hear
    to ask
    ik vroeg
    ik heb gevraagd click to hear
    to drive,
    to ride

    ik reed
    ik heb/ben gereden click to hear
    to give
    ik gaf/wij gaven
    ik heb gegeven click to hear
    to come
    ik kwam/wij kwamen
    ik ben gekomen click to hear
    to walk
    ik liep
    ik heb/ben gelopen click to hear
    to go
    ik ging
    ik ben gegaan click to hear
    to get
    ik haalde
    ik heb gehaald click to hear
    to pray
    ik bad/wij baden
    ik heb gebeden click to hear

    to take
    ik nam/wij namen
    ik heb genomen click to hear
    to bring
    ik bracht
    ik heb gebracht click to hear
    to think
    ik dacht
    ik heb gedacht click to hear
    to eat
    ik at/wij aten
    ik heb gegeten click to hear
    to honor
    ik eerde
    ik heb geëerd * click to hear

    More Exceptions

    Verbs that already feature a so-called 'inseparable prefix' (be-, er-, ge-, her-, ont- and ver-) will not add ge- for their past participle, there will only be the past participle ending.
    to promise
    ik beloofde
    ik heb beloofd click to hear
    to pay
    ik betaalde
    ik heb betaald click to hear
    to acknowledge
    ik erkende
    ik heb erkend click to hear
    to believe
    ik geloofde
    ik heb geloofd click to hear
    to repeat
    ik herhaalde
    ik heb herhaald click to hear
    to discover
    ik ontdekte
    ik heb ontdekt click to hear
    to forget
    ik vergat
    ik ben vergeten click to hear

    Some verbs form compound words with other prepositions; those verbs often (but not always) split up in the simple tenses. In the past participle of these splitting compound verbs, the ge- is usually inserted between the preposition and the basic verb.
    Unfortunately, sometimes these prepositions do not split from the verb, and then no ge- is inserted for the past participle.
    It looks to me like the compound verbs that have the stress on the preposition do split up, while the compound verbs with the stress on the basic verb do not split up.


    simple present
    simple past
    perfect tense
    to leave behind
    ik laat achter
    ik liet achter
    ik heb achtergelaten
    click to hear
    to retrieve, find out
    ik achterhaal
    ik achterhaalde
    ik heb achterhaald
    click to hear
    ~to pursue
    ik achtervolg
    ik achtervolgde
    ik heb achtervolgd
    click to hear
    to collect, pick up
    (ik haal af)
    ik haalde af
    ik heb afgehaald
    click to hear
    to await, wait for
    (ik wacht af)
    ik wachtte af
    ik heb afgewacht
    click to hear
    to take along
    ik neem mee
    ik nam mee
    ik heb meegenomen
    click to hear
    to go into hiding
    ik duik onder
    ik dook onder
    ik ben ondergedoken
    click to hear
    to maintain
    (ik onderhoud)
    ik onderhield
    ik heb onderhouden
    click to hear
    to persuade
    ik haal over
    ik haalde over
    ik heb overgehaald
    click to hear
    to convince
    ik overtuig
    ik overtuigde
    ik heb overtuigd
    click to hear
    to advance (money)
    (ik schiet voor)
    ik schoot voor
    ik heb voorgeschoten
    click to hear
    to show, demonstrate
    ik doe voor
    ik deed voor
    ik heb voorgedaan
    click to hear

    Notice that most of the English verbs in this list are of French and Latin origin, while Dutch uses basic (Germanic) verbs with (Germanic) prepositions.

    schoonmaken click to hear 2 3 to clean
    opruimen click to hear to tidy up, clear

    schoonaken to clean
    ik maak schoon I'm cleaning
    wij maken schoon we're cleaning
    ik maakte schoon I cleaned
    wij maakten schoon we cleaned
    ik heb schooongemaakt I have cleaned
    click to hear >>
    opruimen to clear
    ik ruim op I'm clearing
    wij ruimen op we're clearing
    ik ruimde op I cleared
    wij ruimden op we cleared
    ik heb opgeruimd I have cleared
    click to hear

    The Past Perfect Tense

    The past perfect tense uses the simple past tense of the auxiliary verbs hebben en zijn:
    ik had gehad click to hear 2 I had had
    ik was geweest click to hear 2 I had been
    ik had gedacht click to hear 2 I had thought
    ik had gehoopt click to hear I had hoped
    ik had gewild click to hear 2 I had wanted
    ik had teveel gegeten click to hear I had eaten too much

    The Future Tense

    Find a newer version explaining the future tense in Lesson 14.
    The future tense uses the auxiliary verb 'zullen' with a verb inifinive:
    Ik zal komen - (I will come.)

    ik zal
    jij zult
    hij zal
    wij zullen
    jullie zullen
    zij zullen
    U zult
    click to hear
    (I will/shall)
    (you will)
    (he will)
    (we will/shall)
    (you will)
    (they will)
    (you will)

    zal ik?
    zul jij?
    zal hij?
    zullen wij?
    zullen jullie?
    zullen zij?
    zult U?
    click to hear
    (will/shall I?)
    (will you?)
    (will he?)
    (will/shall we?)
    (will you?)
    (will they?)
    (will you?)
    'Jij zal' click to hear 2 and 'zal jij?' click to hear are acceptable variations.
    Conditional Tense ('Future Past')
    ik zou
    jij zou
    hij zou
    wij zouden
    jullie zouden
    zij zouden
    U zou
    click to hear
    (I would)
    (you would)
    (he would)
    (we would)
    (you would)
    (they would)
    (you would)
    Verbs of motion, especially 'gaan' (to go) can (like in English) also be used as an informal future tense:
    ik ga naar huis click to hear I'm going home
    hij gaat naar Rotterdam click to hear 2 he's going to Rotterdam
    morgen gaat hij naar Den Haag click to hear 2 he'll go to The Hague tomorrow
    Als de dagen lengen, gaan de nachten strengen click to hear As the days get longer, the nights will get more severe (i.e. colder)
    morgen gaan we lijnen click to hear tomorrow we'll start dieting
    hij vertrekt morgen naar Afrika click to hear he'll leave for Africa tomorrow

    The Passive Voice

    Find a newer version explaining the passive voice in Lesson 13.
    In the passive voice, the object is passively subjected to an activity: The book is read. or The house was built. In Dutch, the passive voice uses the auxiliary verb 'worden' with the past participle of the relevant verb.
    ik word geschopt door Jan click to hear I am kicked by John
    A fairly common expression is: "Ik word geleefd." click to hear [I am lived] ~ I have no life of my own.
    English uses 'to be' for the passive voice. Confusion may arise because Dutch sometimes uses 'zijn' (to be) as an auxiliary for the perfect tense.
    ik word
    jij wordt
    hij wordt
    wij worden
    jullie worden
    zij worden
    U wordt
    click to hear
    (I am)
    (you are)
    (he is)
    (we are)
    (you are)
    (they are)
    (you are)

    word ik?
    word jij?
    wordt hij?
    worden wij?
    worden jullie?
    worden zij?
    wordt U?
    click to hear
    (am I?)
    (are you?)
    (is he?)
    (are we?)
    (are you?)
    (are they?)
    (are you?)
    ik werd
    jij werd
    hij werd
    wij werden
    jullie werden
    zij werden
    U werd
    click to hear
    (I was)
    (you were)
    (he was)
    (we were)
    (you were)
    (they were)
    (you were)

    The perfect tense of 'worden' uses 'zijn' (to be) - and the 'geworden' is usually dropped.
    ik ben geschopt click to hear I have been kicked
    Note the different use of 'is' in English and Dutch in the following sentences:
    he is stung by a wasp click to hear hij wordt door een wesp gestoken!
    he has been stung by a wasp click to hear hij is door een wesp gestoken

    'Worden' is also used in the sense of 'to become:'
    "Wat wil je later worden?" click to hear What are you going to be when you grow up?
    Wat is er van hem geworden? click to hear 2 Whatever became of him?
    't Wordt donker click to hear It is getting dark

    The Imperative

    The verb stem is the imperative - (de) gebiedende wijs click to hear 2 3 . Like in English, there is no subject and the sentences usually start with the verb. 'The imperative' and 'de gebiedende wijs' may sound a bit forbidding, but next to commands it's also used for suggestions and instructions.
    It's almost always used in the singular, even when directed at crowds or the public in general. Political campaigns will say stem ... click to hear ('vote ...') - the plural (which adds a T) would sound a bit old-fashioned.
    Zwijg! click to hear 2 Be silent! (Don't speak! Shut up!)
    Luister! click to hear 2 Listen!
    Hoor! click to hear Hear! (Hark!)
    Kom terug! click to hear 2 Come back!
    Haal diep adem. click to hear Take a deep breath.
    Verroer je niet! click to hear Don't move! ('yourself')
    Neem de tweede weg rechts. click to hear Take the second road to the right.
    Kook de aardappels zeventien minuten. click to hear Boil the potatoes for 17 minutes.
    Ga direct naar huis! click to hear 2 Go home immediately!
    Doe alsjeblieft de deur dicht! click to hear 2 Please close the door!
    Geef 't goede voorbeeld. click to hear [Give] Set the right example
    Zeg het voort click to hear 2
    Zegt het voort click to hear 2
    Pass it on (a message)
    Pass it on (a message) - a rare example of the plural imperative
    more imperative

    Verbs as Nouns and Adjectives

    The infinitive of verbs can be used as a noun, taking 'het' as its article.
    Het eten van varkensvlees is verboden click to hear Eating pork is not allowed.
    Het drinken van alcohol is toegestaan click to hear Drinking alcohol is allowed.

    Adding a '-d(e)' ending to the verb infinitive will make it into an adjective of the ongoing action of the verb; the past participle can be used as an adjective of when the verb's action is finished ('e' in endings.)

    'zinken' click to hear 'to sink' is a strong verb:

    to sink
    - zonk
    - gezonken
    click to hear
    het schip zinkt click to hear the ship is sinking
    het zinkende schip click to hear the sinking ship
    het schip is gezonken click to hear the ship has sunk
    't schip - het is gezonken click to hear the ship - it has sunk
    het gezonken schip click to hear the sunken ship
    het zinken van het schip click to hear the sinking of the ship
    The Dutch last line above, het zinken van het schip just describes the ship going down, and does NOT have a second meaning 'making the ship go down' like in English. For that, when a ship is bombed, torpedoed or scuttled there's the phrase:
    tot zinken brengen click to hear 2 3 'to sink' a ship

    het verwoorden click to hear 2 the phrasing, putting into words
    Het eten van varkensvlees is verboden click to hear Eating pork is not allowed.
    Het drinken van alcohol is toegestaan click to hear 'Drinking alcohol is permitted'

    de aardappels koken click to hear the potatoes are [boiling] cooking
    de kokende aardappels click to hear the boiling potatoes
    de aardappels zijn gekookt click to hear the potatoes have been [boiled] cooked
    de gekookte aardappels click to hear the [boiled] cooked potatoes

    het naderend onheil click to hear the approaching disaster
    het gesproken boek click to hear the [spoken] audio book
    een sprekend voorbeeld click to hear a telling example
    de zangeres lacht click to hear the lady singer laughs
    de lachende zangeres click to hear the laughing singer

    Only in a few expressions (that are already becoming obsolete) the stem + de adjective is found with zijn (to be):

    hij was druk doende click to hear he was busy [doing]
    wat is er gaande? click to hear 2 What's going on?

    The Continuous

    Find a newer version explaining Dutch forms of a continuous in Lesson 15.
    Dutch does not have a Continuous like English (you are reading, I am waiting), but a similar meaning can be conveyed using appropriate verbs like 'zitten' (to sit, to be seated), 'liggen' (to lie), 'staan' (to stand, to be standing) or 'lopen' (to walk).
    I'm thinking of a present - Ik zit te denken aan een cadeau - click to hear
    I was thinking of ... - Ik zat te denken aan ... - click to hear
    I was waiting for a phone call - Ik zat te wachten op een telefoontje - click to hear
    I was waiting for ... - Ik zat te wachten op ... - click to hear
    They were sleeping - Ze lagen te slapen - click to hear
    He was talking to Pete - Hij stond te praten met Piet - click to hear
    He was talking to ... - Hij stond te praten met ... - click to hear
    He is swearing, cursing out - Hij loopt te schelden - click to hear
    to sit, to be sitting zitten ik zit wij zitten ik zat wij zaten ik heb gezeten click to hear 2 more
    to lie (like, in bed) liggen ik lig wij liggen ik lag wij lagen ik heb gelegen click to hear more
    to stand, to be standing staan ik sta wij staan ik stond wij stonden ik heb gestaan click to hear 2 more
    to walk lopen ik loop wij lopen ik liep wij liepen ik ben/heb gelopen click to hear 2 more

    Occasionally, you may find aan het + verb infinitive:

    ik ben aan 't koken click to hear I am cooking (preparing food) (Dutch koken means both 'to boil' and 'to cook, prepare food.')

    Irregular and Confusing Verbs

    mogen (to be allowed to
    - 'may')

    kunnen (to be able to
    - 'can')
    ik mag
    jij mag
    hij mag
    wij mogen
    jullie mogen
    zij mogen
    U mag
    click to hear
    (I 'may')
    (you 'may')
    (he 'may')
    (we 'may')
    (you 'may')
    (they 'may')
    (you 'may')

    ik kan
    jij kunt
    hij kan
    wij kunnen
    jullie kunnen
    zij kunnen
    U kunt
    click to hear
    (I 'can')
    (you 'can')
    (he 'can')
    (we 'can')
    (you 'can')
    (they 'can')
    (you 'can')
    'Jij kan' en 'U kan' is also correct.
    mag jij?(are you allowed to?)
    kun jij?(are you able to?) click to hear
    ik mocht
    jij mocht
    hij mocht
    wij mochten
    jullie mochten
    zij mochten
    U mocht
    click to hear
    (I was allowed)
    (you were allowed)
    (he was allowed)
    (we were allowed)
    (you were allowed)
    (they were allowed)
    (you were allowed)

    ik kon
    jij kon
    hij kon
    wij konden
    jullie konden
    zij konden
    U kon
    click to hear
    (I 'could')
    (you 'could')
    (he 'could')
    (we 'could')
    (you 'could')
    (they 'could')
    (you 'could')

    In long verbs, we may find a verb stem already ending in a syllable with voiceless E: that voiceless E is not going to change - neither a double E for a long E, nor will the final consonant be doubled.

    to shop winkelen ik winkel wij winkelen ik winkelde wij winkelden ik heb gewinkeld
    click to hear
    to walk,
    to hike
    wandelen ik wandel wij wandelen ik wandelde wij wandelden ik heb/ben gewandeld
    click to hear
    to split;
    to share
    delen ik deel wij delen ik deelde wij deelden ik heb gedeeld
    click to hear
    to divide,
    verdelen ik verdeel wij verdelen ik verdeelde wij verdeelden ik heb verdeeld
    click to hear 2
    to tell,
    vertellen ik vertel wij vertellen ik vertelde wij vertelden ik heb verteld
    click to hear 2

    The English verbs 'to lie' and 'to lay' are confusing to some people; in Dutch there is a similar problem:

    to lie (like, in bed) liggen ik lig wij liggen ik lag wij lagen ik heb gelegen click to hear >>
    to lay (like, to put) leggen ik leg wij leggen ik legde wij legden ik heb gelegd click to hear 2
    to lie (to say what's not) liegen ik lieg wij liegen ik loog wij logen ik heb gelogen click to hear

    Marco Schuffelen - email
    copyright © 1999-2006 Marco Schuffelen - All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, redistributed, or hotlinked to.
    Don't be a dief (thief) - dievegge (female thief) - diefstal (theft) - stelen (to steal) - heler (dealer in stolen goods) - hear Dutch - 2